VOLUME 1's PREFACE AND INFO - BY OVE VON SPAETH
PREFACE BY AUTHOR: This re-evaluation of the time and status
of the historical Moses and the special inspirations behind his work - is based
on interdisciplinary scientific- and cultural historical research, connecting
archaeological findings, textual research, and astronomical dating - all being
evaluated in relation to the Bible, the Rabbinical Writings, and various
important authors of Antiquity.
Many handed-down sources
and findings have, for the first time, been put into a greater context all of
which should be judged in its entirety. The book is not based on
single sources or solitary decisions - rather,the focus is on the presentation
of a long string of clues and indications; these may be considered a "special
offer" to further research.
The book can be read
without previous scientific qualifications. It is not an attempt to present
Moses' "curriculum vitae", nor is it "documentary fiction", or a historical
account distributed in trendy reading form.
Annotations at the bottom
of pages or at special places have been left out in favour of coherence and
legibility. Instead, annotations have been continuously included in the
reading-matter. References of sources are given directly on the spot and may, as
you like, be passed over or used in further documentation just like summaries
and appendices. The intentional lack of other current annotation is compensated
for by a comprehensive bibliography with further substantiation of the
information given in the book. The bibliography has been divided into various
fields of subject matter in order to facilitate verification.
The British Egyptologist
Alan H. Gardiner's transcription of Egyptian names has been preferred.
Supplementary astronomical data are presented at the end of the book.
A number of researchers
and experts have from their separate fields of science most kindly contributed
with guidance, criticism, argumentation, and encouragement. Naturally, these
experts are not responsible for the way in which their information has been
Special thanks are offered to:
Astronomy: Kristian Peder Moesgaard, D.Sc. Professor, History of
Science Department, Aarhus University - Director of the Steno Museum, The
Danish National Museum for the History of Science, Aarhus University.
Erik Iversen, Ph.D.,h.c., Assistant Professor, formerly Department of Egyptology, University of
Copenhagen; - Eva Richter Aeroe, M.A., Assistant Professor, Carsten Niebuhr Institute,
University of Copenhagen; - Geoffrey T. Martin, Prof.D., Department of
Egyptology, London University, England.
Philology/Bible- and Talmud Texts: Egon K. Keck, M.A. in Semitic
Languages, Subject Adviser, Dep. of Judaism, The Royal National Library of
Denmark, Copenhagen; - S. Heimann, Rabbi, formerly Dep. of Judaism,
The Royal National Library of Denmark, Copenhagen; - Jens-André P.
Herbener, M.A. in Semitic Philology and Comparative Religion, and Project
leader, at The Royal National Library of Denmark, of the new scholarly
translation into Danish of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
Bent Melchior, former Chief Rabbi of Denmark; - Jakob H.
Groenbaek, B.D., Subject Adviser, The Royal National Library of Denmark,
Copenhagen; - Eduard Nielsen, B.D., Professor, Dep. of Biblical
Exegesis, University of Copenhagen; - Niels Peter Lemche, B.D.,
Professor, Dep. of Biblical Exegesis, University of Copenhagen.
Per Bilde, D.D., Study of Religion, Professor, Aarhus University.
and Mythology: Leo Hjortsoe, Assistant Professor, Department of
Greek and Latin, University of Copenhagen.
and History: Ellen Wulff, M.A., Carsten Niebuhr Institute,
Professor, University of Copenhagen; - Philippe Provencal, M.A.,
Semitic Philology, Aarhus University.
Jens Jörgensen, MA in History, former Headmaster, officiately app.
examiner in history at the Universities of Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense.
Principles of the
Jewish/Mosaic Calendar: Bent Lexner, Chief Rabbi of Denmark, Copenhagen.
Calculation: Leif Kahl Kristensen, Ph.D., Assistant Professor,
Department of History of Science, Aarhus University; - K.A. Ternoe,
M.A., formerly Department of Physics, Danish Post-Graduate Training College
for Teachers, Copenhagen; - Kyril Fabrin, Assist.
Professor, Mathematics & Astronomy, formerly Aalborg University; -
H. Quade Rasmusen, Astronomer, Kalundborg, DK; - F.R. Stephenson,
D.C., Astronomer, University of Durham, England; - David Dunham, DC,
Astronomer, US Naval Observatory, Washington DC, USA.
Further thanks to: Erik Dal, Ph.D., Chief librarian, The Royal
National Library of Denmark, Copenhagen; - Eva Björnböl,
Research-librarian, Cairo; - Jannie Fursund, LLD, Assistant Professor;
- Jeppe Berg Sandvej, Ph.D., in Theology and History of Ideas; - Asmus
Koefoed, Bach.Phys.; - Karine Smidth, Journalist; - Sidney Maage,
Principal, Ministry of Defence; - Raymond Bildstedfelt, Inf.Director, DI;
- Henry Lincoln, Writer, Researcher; - Sven Tito Achen, Symbology
Historian, and Council Secretary, formerly The Danish Research Council for the
Humanities; - Guni Martin, Instructor, Writer, Publisher; - Marianne
Illum, proofreader; - Evan Bogan, Publ. Director; - The Staff of The Royal
National Library of Denmark, and of Dep. II of the Copenhagen University
Library; - Construction of Computer Programs: Laurids Pedersen, Nysted,
DK; - Cynthia Gyldenholm, Translator; - Ulla Hoff, H.D., English language,
Translator; - Astronomical Computer Calculations: Jarl Hansen, Macro Systems
- ABSTRACTS - summary and some guiding clues
OVE VON SPAETH: The
- Moses' Unknown Egyptian Background
Volume 1 of the series
- Rediscovered accounts in ancient Rabbinical texts and in Egyptian
sources reveal that the Bible's greatest prophet was born as a prospective heir
to the Egyptian throne. However, enemies at court and in the priesthood
obstructed his chances of becoming a pharaoh ...
Critical material from an array of ancient and modern sources regarding the
historical Moses is gathered and presented here in completeness for the
first time. The data reveals surprising facts including a royal plot and attack on Moses
in Egypt. His life and position appear to be quite
different from prevailing perspectives.
findings confirm the Egyptian base of this unique biblical
leader. Everyone knows about the story of Moses found by Pharaoh's daughter
in the reeds by the Nile’s riverside - but was he just a myth? Or did parts
of modern biblical research commit "murder on history"?
But the episode
with a baby in a reed basket boat appears everywhere in Antiquity as a
well-defined ritual practiced for royal heirs. Via astronomical dating which
can be verified objectively on the basis of modern scientific astronomy,
knowledge of Moses' era and true status is restored; the book's thorough
documentation makes possible the solving of many biblical enigmas.
Key Phrases :
historical Moses, ancient Egypt, archaeology,
ancient astronomy, anthropology, historians of
antiquity, Bible, chronology, cultural history,
mystery cults, mystery play, star cult, Rabbinical
Writings, oracles, religious history, theology,
Old Testament, Torah, Pentateuch, Exodus,
Talmud, Egyptology, Ove von Spaeth, Philo,
Josephus, Jethro, Isis, royal infant ritual,
Queen Hatshepsut, Pharaoh's Daughter, Thebes, Pharaoh
Tuthmosis III, Sinai, Sirius, the World-axis,
Appointed to a different fate
In the Volume 1 of
the series on the historical Moses, the readers are from the outset given
surprising but well-documented facts about the events which in the Bible are
referred to only through fragments. But now we can follow this influential and
versatile personality, Moses, his track of events from birth through adolescence
at Pharaoh's court, - during the first 40 years of his life - where "... Moses
was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians ..." (Acts 7:22) and he have had
experiences with greatness and fall; - a course which revealed an amazingly
otherwise background than previously thought regarding his mission both as a
religion-founder and a leader of a huge group of fleeing people.
Following new and even
untraditional paths the book reveals a surprisingly rich stored up treasure of
numerous interesting, handed down information from Antiquity about Moses and his
life in Egypt.
In a most probable way
the material is able to demonstrate relevant details about Moses in connection
with the pharaonic court in the 18th dynasty in 1500-1400 BC. Also it indicates
that Moses in the Egyptian scenario had been introduced early to a different
fate in prospect than the one which became our view known from the Bible.
With one surprise after
another, most of the book deals with - and presents - a veritable wealth of new
information about Moses' first part of the life and drama during the reigns of
different pharaohs of ancient Egypt and its impressive civilization.
New Data Revealing Moses' Unknown Egyptian Background
On this developed basis
also these decisive questions have appeared:
- What lay behind the mysterious account of Moses'
- Do the earliest texts of the Bible contain revisions and
‘editing’ of accounts?
- Was Moses borne by Pharaoh's Daughter and what could that
- What is the implication of Moses' name being Egyptian?
- Why are the first many years of Moses' life not spoken of?
A fascinating and
untraditional material is here for the first time collected as a whole: "The
Suppressed Record" reveals details of a hidden but full-scale attack on Moses'
identity as a person as well as a historical character; and reveals his life and
position as being surprisingly different from what has hitherto been assumed.
The episode of "the
infant sailing on the river" was a widespread and well-known ceremonial for
royal children; but was biblical episode on the Egyptians' drowning of other
children a sacrificial act connected with the ancient cultic rituals?
New historical knowledge
and many rare sources about Moses handed down through the ages prove their
connection with Egyptian tradition and archaeological findings showing
them to be mutually related to the Bible, the 'Rabbinical Writings' as well as
the authors of Antiquity. The dating is based on numerous sources, not least the
recovered ancient astronomical data, all possible to verify scientifically.
. . .
Historical and biblical
knowledge regarding the time and status of Moses - about which the lack of
sufficient facts has hitherto created confusion - can now be re-established. It
will contribute to the solution of several puzzling biblical matters. Living
history, comfortably providing the reader with comfortable access to the
At some time someone had
to break through conventional views and, instead, present the story of Moses in
a logical coherence based on the large, often very detailed information about
him which has still been preserved. Eventually, this has happened - and in a
refreshingly different form. - This book is based on solid documentary material
from a notably large spectrum also of rare sources (in addition to the Talmud,
for instance) - seen for the first time as a collected whole!
The present re-evaluation
of Moses' status and era is to the most impressive extent based in
inter-disciplinary research of the history of ancient cultures. The rare text
material itself is elementarily exciting - and is now made accessible to readers
without a formal scientific education or scholarly qualifications.
Moses has been the
inspiration for novels and films - but the data of the sources combined with
archaeological facts reveal that his real life-story is the most exciting of
all. The status and era of Moses being re-evaluated in this book are based on
inter-disciplinary historical research.
By means of such
complementary evidence, light is cast upon here on some hitherto hidden chapters
of our common cultural prehistory: Out of the well-known biblical story an
untraditional and stronger Egyptian background is brought to light. Two
important keys are astronomical dating, moving Moses from myth to history,
and the ancient magical rites and mystery plays, whose acting language
was lost to readers in later times.
Among the first decisive
results appearing by this special historical background is the fact that the
Pharaoh's daughter, who found him near the Nile bank and took care of him and
brought him up, must have been none other than the famous Queen Hatshepsut.
"Pharaoh's Daughter" was
a title not given to any other daughter of Pharaoh but only to the crown
princesses. Hatshepsut was exactly this kind of high ranking princess because of
her full royal descent when both of her parents were of the royal family and
cultic initiated. Even while her father was alive, but her two brothers had died
young, she was ceremonially raised to be his co-regent, and in her later years
she herself was regularly crowned as female pharaoh.
Even, according to the
solid indications in Ove von Spaeth's extensive source material of Antiquity,
Hatshepsut was not only the Pharaoh's daughter, who found Moses and brought him
up as her son - much evidence material suggests that she was his real mother.
All indications pointing
to that Moses was brought up to be a pharaoh. Such was conditioned on having a
highranking Egyptian family background and, in fact, also his name Moses is a
genuine Egyptian name. The book argues and demonstrates how it would be quite
unlikely that a child, a foundling, from another cultural context - for instance,
of Hebrew origin - could have received a thoroughly royal Egyptian upbringing
and initiated into Egyptian cultic mysteries.
A 'full-blood' royal family member
The book further explores
the ancient source material concerning the biblical figure of Jethro at Sinai as
an Egyptian of royal blood and advisor to the Pharaoh and argues the ways in
which he may have been the biological father of Moses.
Hatshepsut's royal mother,
Ahmose, had in her time as queen arranged that her daughter (Hatshepsut) could
be born as a "full-blood" royal family member. Therefore, Queen Ahmose had
united with the superior god at a specific time when some specific celestial
constellations conjoined in the sky. These were circumstances considered
favourable to union leading to divine manifestation within the couple. In her
own time, Hatshepsut could only unite with a royal relative and, at that time,
not her younger half-brother, the future Tuthmosis III, on account of his
extreme youth. In this situation, the divine immanence in her partner was
represented by another high ranking member of her family of royal blood, Jehtro.
"Hieros gamos" (the
sacred wedding) was thus the cultic act where the god begat earthly children
assigned for special purposes. Many who study Antiquity meet a humoristic view
on all the god-children Zeus produced. However, this was a mythology world being
re-played and performed through a religious royal cultic set-up.
This rite was common
across the ancient world, including ancient Greece and Rome. For example, many
Roman emperors, until Constantine the Great, were perceived as divine in origin
- "Sol Invictus". The interaction between a ruler and the gods was vital to
validation of governmental power and authority.
A detailed description is
being presented by Ove von Spaeth regarding how such rites of "hieros gamos"
were arranged in ancient Egypt. In the temple of a superior god there was a
special, royal chamber where this action could take place, actually or
symbolically. The king was cast in the role of the god with full regalia. The
rite was performed as a special, cultic drama by means of which the queen came
Ritually royal infant ceremonial
In accordance with such
rites, after the royal son was born, it took three months before the new royal
mother again appeared in public and this occurred in the form of a cleansing
bath in the Nile. The traditional biblical description of the Pharaoh's Daughter
bathing at the Nile bank may be viewed in the light of such a ritual ceremony
that led to her reception of a divine child - Moses - floating in a boat, "a
small ark" according to the biblical texts and writings.
Not only in the Egyptian
culture but also in other parts of the world the future kings in their
three-month age were through the gods presented most often from a river or the
sea, all in the context of a religious mystery play. The queen or princess
giving birth had in the time before and after birth remained at an isolated
place and first became officially the mother of the child after the ceremony by
However, many parallels
to this phenomenon exist in religious history, concerning a king at an early
stage when being a baby came floating to the country to which he was going to be
a king. Where he arrives from was not always told. In this way it took place,
for example, in the Danish legend about King Skjold (King Shief). The
traditional founder of the Athens, King Kekrops, migrated from Egypt in the time
of Moses - according to ancient Church history writer Eusebius - and had, at the
new place, performed this royal cultic ritual in the same way.
A more accurate timing
The ancient, handed down
knowledge of Moses is sustained by our time's increased information about the
old Egyptian royal family. The family relations had decisive importance to the
changed life of Moses in Egypt. In connection with the exact information of the
'Rabbinical Writings' it is now possible to ascertain that in 1534 BC (in
February) the Daughter of Pharaoh gave birth to Moses. The time in question is
consistent with the coronation of Hatshepsut the year before, when this young
daughter of Pharaoh Tuthmosis I became crowned by a ceremony to be her father's
co-regent with an official title as: Pharaoh's Daughter!
The problem of the
scholars' researching hitherto concerning the century in which Moses lived, can
apparently be solved based on the verifying of surviving 'Rabbinical Writings'
astronomical dating and calendar information in relation to Egyptology and
archaeological research. Hatshepsut became a queen (1522 BC) and - very unusual
- was later crowned as Pharaoh (1509 BC); to certain degrees this protected her
son - Moses - as heir to the throne.
When Moses was around 40
years, Jethro first - and later Moses himself - were pulled out of Egypt by
plots carried out by Moses' half-brother, the later Tuthmosis III in collusion
with many of the priests. So, it happened that Moses instead of being the ruler
of Egypt, became the founder of the monotheistic religion(s) - still existing in
our present day.
The three facts
An overview: The book
presents a special material, based on Ove von Spaeth's extensive investigations,
crucial to the understanding that: - 1) Moses was an Egyptian
and not a Hebrew as assumed for a long time - a condition confirmed as based on
the ancient texts and also on the then widely used royal infant ritual (the
reception at the river) which he had to perform. And - 2)
that Moses actually was the Son of "Pharaoh's Daughter" and was the candidate to
the Egyptian throne. Finally, it is demonstrated on the basis of the intriguing
source material that - 3) the pharaonic daughter in question
is convincingly indicated as being the historic, central person, who later
became known as Queen Hatshepsut.
Intrigues of the pharaonic court
To elaborate some
important points in the above information:
A high-ranking member of the royal family, wearing the title/name of the river
god, Iteru, was Jethro(!) who may have been the biological father of Moses.
Later he had to leave Egypt and live in exile at Sinai. Moses' probable mother,
Hatshepsut, was then married to her younger half-brother, the later Tuthmosis
II, who ruled ca. 1522-1509 BC. He was the son of Tuthmosis I and Mutnofret, a
Lady-in-Waiting, who was not of royal blood.
The ancient Church
historian, Eusebius of Caesarea, refers the handed down knowledge about Moses
living at the pharaonic court, and about the husband (Tuthmosis II) of Pharaoh's
Daughter as being the oldest known case of suffering from elephantiasis. The
3,500 year old mummy of Tuthmosis II - not found until modern age, in 1881, - in
fact reveals such an ailment - the worst seen on any royal mummy!
. . .
It is known that
Hatshepsut had no more sons; but her spouse, Tuthmosis II, had a son by Iset, a
concubine not of royal blood; later this son became Pharaoh, now named Tuthmosis
III. Despite the very vague royal descent of the latter outsider prince, this
candidate being competitor to the throne was supported by some groups of
powerful leading priests through a complex plot. This may have led to an
internecine strife sealing the fate of Moses.
Because Moses had to
escape before he had taken over the Egyptian throne, he had not left the many
conspicuous, "official" traces. Therefore, he had not, in contrast to many of
the pharaohs, a life-long possibility of glorifying himself with buildings and
monuments, or images and inscriptions about his life as the ruler of the
When the Egyptian
identity of Moses was officially cancelled, he was rendered "non-existent" in
his native country of Egypt, all of which is another reason for the apparently
lost traces of Moses in the very Egypt. Some traces which still may remain have
frequently been ignored, especially because the Moses narrative mainly has been
considered on the basis of much later times' interpretation of the biblical
texts instead of from an Egyptian point of view.
The book draws upon a
complex array of sources but at the heart of these is a rich texture of
narrative represented in the ancient 'Rabbinical Writings'. These writings are
uncovered in-depth here and supported by materials from historians of Antiquity.
Together, these are then woven in with archaeological and astronomical evidence
regarding ancient Egypt. The author is the first researcher to connecting the
many elements to a greater wholeness
Ove von Spaeth has been
able to present a better fixed historical time frame - also for the first time -
by using a chronology based on astronomy. This is the most precise, specified
method of dating known in these fields of research. This astronomical evidence
is based on observations recorded in the Rabbinical Writings’ and proven by
means of existing ephemeris. The writer demonstrates convincing evidence for a
higher age than usually anticipated regarding the oldest parts of the 'Rabbinical
Writings'. Many such data have only been possible to verify by modern techniques
of our time. The author demonstrates that, consequently, the ancient data in
question have to stem from sources close to the original ancient recordings.
From now on, all this can
better than ever before be related to archaeology and history. Here, the
material itself indicates that the era of Moses was 200-300 years more back in
time than often hitherto "accepted", - Moses seems to belong to the 18th Dynasty
in Egypt rather than to the time of Ramses the II. A point that has caused
severe protesting criticism from groups from the established research.
Ritual mystery plays, the practice of which may almost seem inaccessible today,
are now being placed into the right connection where they so obviously belong,
i.e. as something vital and extremely important also in the everyday life of the
past. And this book documents that in these cultic plays more valuable
historical and anthropological data are contained than previously observed.
The bibliography alone is worth a book. By international perspective, it
constitutes the largest collection hitherto of scientific books and articles on
. . .
Thus, the many concrete
and specific data about Moses and his related time and place disclose a dramatic,
moving, but hitherto unknown part of his fate - this being of greater coherence
and logical wholeness which cannot be explained away. The result is: - a)
an enhanced result for the dating of the existence of Moses in Egypt, and
- b) a concretion of the background of Moses as a royal-born
person and an Egyptian heir to the throne. This furnishes a genuine opening to
the Egyptian past of Moses, which is indispensable when solving the enigma of
the assassination of Moses.
Now, access has been
provided to an ancient chapter - for a long time hidden - about an important
part of the history of Egypt and containing a fateful drama about the young
Moses at the court of the Pharaoh ...
- More about the contents:
Information points concerning this Volume
1 of the series
- More about the contents of Volume 1: read
chapter 1 (chapter
2 and chapter 3)
- More about Volume 1:
A more precise dating of Moses
- Credentials, - about the author, statements from a number of scientific
experts and professionals can be found e.g. on these pages:
authordata-4: Reflecting views - and
Zenith IC Project